benefits of mushroom

Benefits of Mushroom

1. Mushroom
Amushroom(ortoadstool) is the fleshy,sporebearingfruiting bodyof afungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on itsfoodsource. The standard for the name mushroom is the cultivated white button mushroom,Agaricus bisporus; hence the word mushroom is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota,Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing.lamella) or pores on the underside of the cap. These pores or gills produce microscopicsporesthat help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface.
2. Description
Crimini mushrooms are a coffeecolored variety of the world's most commonly eaten mushroom, commonly called the button mushroom. The names white button, crimini and portobello all refer to this same scientific category of mushroom,Agaricus bisporus. Different strains (also called isolates) ofAgaricus bisporusare used in commercial mushroom production along with varied growing conditions and varied time periods of cultivation to produce different varieties this of widely loved food. White button varieties are typically obtained from select strains that can be harvested at a relatively immature stage of growth.
3. History
Button mushrooms have grown wild since prehistoric times, having been consumed as food by the early huntergatherers. Since ancient times, mushrooms have been thought to have special powers. The Egyptians thought that they granted immortality, and since only the pharaohs were felt to be worthy of this gift, the common people were not even allowed to touch mushrooms, let alone eat them. In ancient Rome, people oftentimes referred to mushrooms ascibus diorumfood for the gods. The folklore of many cultures, including Russia, China, and Mexico held that eating mushrooms could give someone superhuman strength.
4. Microscopic features
Ahymeniumis a layer of microscopic sporebearing cells that covers the surface of gills. In the nongilled mushrooms, the hymenium lines the inner surfaces of the tubes ofboletesand polypores, or covers the teeth of spine fungi and the branches of corals. In the Ascomycota, spores develop within microscopic elongated, saclike cells calledasci, which typically contain eight spores in each ascus. TheDiscomycetes, which contain the cup, sponge, brain, and some clublike fungi, develop an exposed layer of asci, as on the inner surfaces ofcup fungior within the pits ofmorels. ThePyrenomycetes, tiny darkcolored fungi that live on a wide range of substrates including soil, dung, leaf litter, and decaying wood, as well as other fungi, produce minute, flaskshaped structures calledperithecia, within which the asci develop.
5. Growth
Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in theEnglish languageincluding to mushroom or mushrooming (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and to pop up like a mushroom (to appear unexpectedly and quickly). In reality all species of mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushroom fruit bodies, though they do expand rapidly by the absorption of fluids.
6. Edible mushrooms
Mushrooms are used extensively incooking, in manycuisines(notablyChinese,Korean,European, andJapanese). They are known as the meat of the vegetable world. Most mushrooms sold insupermarketshave been commercially grown onmushroom farms. The most popular of these,Agaricus bisporus, is considered safe for most people to eat because it is grown in controlled, sterilized environments. Several varieties ofA.bisporusare grown commercially, including whites, crimini, and portobello. Other cultivated species now available at many grocers includeshiitake,maitakeorhenofthewoods,oyster, andenoki. In recent years, increasing affluence in developing countries has led to a considerable growth in interest in mushroom cultivation, which is now seen as a potentially important economic activity for small farmers.
7. Toxic mushrooms
Many mushroom species producesecondary metabolitesthat can be toxic, mindaltering, antibiotic, antiviral, orbioluminescent. Although there are only a small number ofdeadly species, several others can cause particularly severe and unpleasant symptoms. Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp: the mycelium has expended considerable energy and protoplasmic material to develop a structure to efficiently distribute its spores. One defense against consumption and premature destruction is the evolution of chemicals that render the mushroom inedible, either causing the consumer to vomit the meal (seeemetics), or to learn to avoid consumption altogether.
8. Psychoactive mushrooms
Mushrooms with psychoactive properties have long played a role in various native medicine traditions in cultures all around the world. They have been used as sacrament in rituals aimed at mental and physical healing, and to facilitate visionary states. One such ritual is theveladaceremony. A practitioner of traditional mushroom use is theshamanorcurandera(priesthealer). Psilocybin mushrooms possess psychedelic properties. Commonly known as magic mushrooms or 'shrooms, they are openly available in smart shops in many parts of the world, or on the black market in those countries that have outlawed their sale. Psilocybin mushrooms have been reported as facilitating profound and lifechanging insights often described as mystical experiences. Recent scientific work has supported these claims, as well as the longlasting effects of such induced spiritual experiences.
9. Medicinal properties
Some mushrooms orextractsare used or studied as possible treatments fordiseases, such ascardiovascular disorders.[43]Some mushroom materials, includingpolysaccharides,glycoproteinsandproteoglycansare underbasic researchfor their potential to modulateimmune systemresponses and inhibittumorgrowth,[44]whereas other isolates show potentialantiviral,antibacterial,antiparasitic,antiinflammatory, andantidiabeticproperties in preliminary studies.[45]Currently, several extracts have widespread use in Japan, Korea and China, as adjuncts to radiation treatments and chemotherapy,[46][47]even though clinical evidence of efficacy in humans has not been confirmed.
10. Nutrition
Mushrooms are a lowcalorie food eaten cooked, raw or as agarnishto a meal. In a 100 g (3.5 ounce) serving, mushrooms are an excellent source (higher than 20% of theDaily Value, DV) ofB vitamins, such asriboflavin,niacinandpantothenic acid, an excellent source of theessential minerals,selenium(37% DV) andcopper(25% DV), and a good source (1019% DV) ofphosphorusandpotassium. Fat,carbohydrateandcaloriecontent are low, with absence ofvitamin Candsodium. There are 27 calories in a typical serving of fresh mushrooms (table).