If a defending team breaks certain rules, the other team can be awarded a penalty corner. Normally this happens when a team breaks a rule within their own shooting circle, but these can also be awarded when a defender is guilty of a particularly bad foul in the defending quarter of the field.
For a penalty corner, play is stopped to allow the teams to take their positions. One attacker stands with the ball on the backline. This player will push out the ball to other attackers waiting to take a shot. The other attackers wait at the top of the shooting circle to get the ball.
Up to five defenders (including the goalkeeper) position themselves behind the backline to defend. The rest must stay behind the half way line until the push out is taken. The ball is pushed out to one of the attackers. Before a shot can be taken, the ball must first travel outside the circle. The receiver then usually pushes it back into the circle for a shot either by themself or another attacker.
If the first shot is a hit (as opposed to other types of shots, like a flick or a scoop), the ball must enter the goal no higher than than 460mm. It is easy to tell if the ball is at that height because the board at the back of the goal is the same height.
If the first shot is a scoop or a flick (shots that are lifted into the air with a long scooping or pushing action of the stick) then the ball can cross the goalline at any height. Once the attacker on the backline begins to push the ball out, the defenders on the back line may move into the circle.