precautions while using electrical equipment

Precautions while using Electrical Equipment

Safety Rules for Working with Electrical Equipment .
41. Use the right equipment
Use the right equipment 1 choose electrical equipment that is suitable for its working environment. 2 ensure that equipment is safe when supplied and maintain it in a safe condition. 3 electrical equipment used in flammable/explosive atmospheres should be designed not to produce sparks. 4 Seek specialist advice when choosing this type of equipment. 5 protect light bulbs and other easily damaged equipment
42. Maintenance and repairs
1 ensure equipment is fitted with the correctly rated fuse. 2 ensure cable ends always have their outer sheaths firmly clamped to stop wires working loose from plugs or inside equipment. 3 replace damaged sections of cable completely
43. Use other forms of power
Electrical risks can sometimes be eliminated by using air, hydraulic or hand powered tools. These are especially useful in harsh conditions, but remember they could introduce other hazards. If equipment has ventilation holes then make sure air circulation through these is not blocked. If equipment has a heat sink (such as the ridges on some electric motors and electronic motor drives) then make sure air can circulate freely around the heat sink. Devices with heat sinks will get hot in normal operation. Be careful where you mount these devices. Anything rubbing against these may get scorched over time.
44. Reduce the voltage
Reduce the voltage Using lower voltages can reduce or eliminate the risks of electric shocks and burns: 1 portable tools are available which can be run from a 110 volts, centre tapped to earth supply, (usually from a transformer) 2 where electrically powered tools are used, battery operated are safest. 3 temporary lighting can be run at lower voltages, e.g. 12, 25, 50 or 110 volts.
45. Use Residual Current Devices
Use Residual Current Devices (RCDs) for extra safety An RCD can provide additional safety. An RCD detects some (but not all) faults in the electrical system and rapidly switches off the supply. The best place for an RCD is built into the main supply or the socket outlet, as this means that the supply cables are permanently protected. If this is not possible, use a plug incorporating an RCD or a plug in RCD adaptor. RCDs for protecting people have a rated tripping current (sensitivity) of not more than 30 milliamps (mA).
46. Maintain your electrical equipment and installations
All electrical equipment and installations should be maintained to prevent danger. This should include an appropriate system of formal visual inspection, and where necessary, testing. Most faults can usually be identified by an informal visual inspection. It is important that before an item is used a check is made on the plug, cable, cable entry or input socket and the casing of the equipment. If a fault is identified, the item should be removed from use and repaired before being used again. Staff should be trained to carry out these simple visual checks. There should also be a system where formal visual inspections are carried out and recorded, backed up by a system of Portable Appliance Testing (PAT) where appropriate.
47. Underground and overhead electrical supplies
Always assume supplies are live unless it is confirmed otherwise by a competent person or utility company. Use plans and cable avoiding tools to locate cables. Have overhead lines switched off if possible or maintain safe distances from the lines for plant and equipment. More detailed guidance on avoidance of danger from underground and overhead electric lines is available from the Health and Safety Executive.