precautions while using electrical equipment

Precautions while using Electrical Equipment

Safety Rules for Working with Electrical Equipment .
21. Get rid of dampness
Regularly check for any telltale signs of dampness, at and/or around your electrical boards. Such dampness can increase the risk factor while handling the wires and cables. Make sure that all the switches and cable circuits in your home are set up at clean, dry places.
22. Do not let the wires and cables become disorganized
Messy wires are often the most common cause for electrical fires. Apart from the risks of getting electrocuted, wires lying about in a disorganized manner on the floor can also result in accidental trips and falls. You can use cable ties to bundle wires together, so that there are no causes for confusion. If necessary, you can label the wires as well.
23. Underground and overhead power lines
When carrying out an excavation, always assume that cables will be present. Take precautions against striking underground cables by confirming the location of underground cables (and other services) and obtaining up to date electrical plans for adjacent buildings.
24. Fitting insulation under a suspended floor
Power cables are often run along bearers and joists under a suspended floor. When installing underfloor insulation with steel staples turn off the power at the mains if there are electric cables present as it is extremely important not to staple through a live electricity cable
25. Think ahead
Assess all of the risks associated with the task. Plan the whole job in advance so that you can take every precaution, including arranging for help in case of paralyzing shock. Consider the use of a pre job safety meeting to discuss the job with all workers before starting the work.
26. Limit the exposure
Have live parts exposed for as little time as necessary. This does not mean that you should work hastily. Be organized so that the job can be done efficiently. Provide a means to switch off any equipment if someone should somehow be trapped by moving parts or receive an electrical shock. For large items of machinery this will usually be in the form of an emergency stop button. For simpler equipment it will be a plug and socket (just unplug to switch off) or a local switch. This should be accessible. Having the socket for a washing machine or a fridge hidden behind the machine is no use in an emergency move the socket to the side or provide a switch where you can get at it which feeds the hidden socket.
27. Cover exposed live metal
Use insulating barriers or shields to cover live parts. Plexiglas plates can be usefull. If the voltage of the system is less than 50V for AC supplies or less than 120V for DC supplies then it is known as extra low voltage and it is considered to be low enough that it is not going to cause a fatal electric shock. If the source of supply is made so that, even in a fault condition, mains voltages cannot appear on the system then it is safety extra low voltage (SELV) other protection measures may not be required.
28. Cover grounded metalwork
Grounded metal parts should be covered with insulating material as much as possible. Very important. For all low voltage cables there should be an additional protection over the insulation. If the cables is outside or located where it may be abused then this outer cable should be tough enough to withstand this abuse in some cases this will mean the cable should armoured. For live elements inside an enclosure this means that the enclosure must be strong enough to withstand the abuse it is likely to suffer in that location.
29. Limit the energy to reduce the risk
All practical steps should be taken to ensure that the fault current at the point of work is kept as low as possible while the work is in progress. For example, when measuring voltage, do it on the load side of the circuit protective devices with the smallest current rating. Current limiting devices can be used to reduce the risk of an arc flash.
30. Remove metal stuff
These could cause a short circuit where small clearances are involved. (If it is necessary to wear medic alert bracelets, secure them with transparent surgical or adhesive tape or rubber bands.) To avoid the danger of electric shock due to this voltage you should make sure that any major metal elements in the building are bonded to the building electrical earth or ground conductor. This ensures that during a fault all the metal in the building goes to the same fault voltage rather than some of it staying at the outside earth voltage thus reducing the touch voltage. This is known as earthed equipotential bonding with automatic disconnection of supply or eebads.