Major Wars Of 20th Century
The 20th century was dominated by wars and conflicts.
21. Korean guerilla war against Japanese occupation
Years 1907 1910 Battle deaths 17,736 By 1905 Japan had thwarted Chinese and Russian bids for influence over the Korean Peninsula and felt comfortable in demanding of Korea a relationship to her benefit. The 1905 Taft Katsura agreement in effect gave tacit U.S. approval to the Japanese colonization of the peninsula in exchange for Japanese recognition of U.S. influence over the Philippines. Without opposition in Korea, in November 1905 Japan concluded a treaty with King Kojong, making Korea a protectorate and giving herself control over Koreas foreign relations and external matters. The Japanese resident general also slowly took over internal affairs. With the forced abdication of the king in 1907, his son Sukjong took the throne. Japan pressured him to abdicate three years later and formally annexed the country in April 1910.
22. Portugese war against Dembos
Years 1907 1910 Battle deaths 5,100 One of the most difficult Portuguese military campaigns of the period was waged against the Dembos, a Kimbundu speaking people who lived less than 150 kilometers northeast of Luanda. The Portuguese attacked the Dembos repeatedly over a period of three years before the Dembos were finally subdued in 1910. Because of difficult conditions, including the tropical climate, the Portuguese did not complete their occupation of Dembos land until 1917. An estimate of casualties places losses at 5000 to the Portuguese and 5000 to the Dembos.
23. Iranian Constitution War
Years 1908 1909 Battle deaths 1,100 The Persian Constitutional Revolution or Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1907. The revolution led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia (Iran).The Revolution opened the way for cataclysmic change in Persia, heralding the modern era. It saw a period of unprecedented debate in a burgeoning press. The revolution created new opportunities and opened up seemingly boundless possibilities for Persias future. Many different groups fought to shape the course of the Revolution, and all sections of society were ultimately to be in some way changed by it. The old order, which Nasser al Din Shah Qajar had struggled for so long to sustain, finally died, to be replaced by new institutions, new forms of expression, and a new social and political order.
24. French Conquest of Wadai Sultanate
Years 1909 1911 Battle deaths 12,000 The militaristic Ouaddai opposed French domination until being overcome on June 6, 1909 with the occupation of the capital Abeche by French troops where a puppet sultan was installed. Resistance continued until the last independent sultan was captured in 1912 bringing the sultanate to an end. It became part of the independent Republic of Chad on that countrys independence in 1960. The Ouadda
25. Mexican Revolution
Years 1910 1920 Battle deaths 125,000 In 1910 the 80 year old az decided to hold an election to serve another term as president. He thought he had long since eliminated any serious opposition in Mexico; however, Francisco I. Madero, an academic from a rich family, decided to run against him and quickly gathered popular support, despite azs putting Madero in jail.When the official election results were announced, it was declared that az had won reelection almost unanimously, with Madero receiving only a few hundred votes in the entire country. This fraud by the Porfiriato was too blatant for the public to swallow, and riots broke out. Madero prepared a document known as the Plan de San Luis Potos?, in which he called the Mexican people to take their weapons and fight against the government of Porfirio az on November 20, 1910.
This started what is known as the Mexican Revolution (Revolucion Mexicana). Madero was incarcerated in San Antonio, Texas, but his plan took effect in spite of him being in jail. The Federal Army was defeated by the revolutionary forces which were led by, amongst others, Emiliano Zapata in the South, Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco in the North, and Venustiano Carranza. Porfirio az resigned in 1911 for the sake of the peace of the nation and went to exile in France, where he died in 1915.The revolutionary leaders had many different objectives; revolutionary figures varied from liberals such as Madero to radicals such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa. As a consequence, it proved very difficult to reach agreement on how to organize the government that emanated from the triumphant revolutionary groups. The result of this was a struggle for the control of Mexicos government in a conflict that lasted more than twenty years. This period of struggle is usually referred to as part of the Mexican Revolution, although it might also be looked on as a civil war. Presidents Francisco I. Madero (1911), Venustiano Carranza (1920), and former revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata (1919) and Pancho Villa (1923) were assassinated during this time, amongst many others.
Following the resignation of az and a brief reactionary interlude, Madero was elected President in 1911. He was ousted and killed in 1913. Venustiano Carranza, a former revolutionary general who became one of the several presidents during this turbulent period, promulgated a new Constitution on February 5, 1917. The Mexican Constitution of 1917 still guides Mexico.In 1920, ?lvaro ObregOn became president. He accommodated all elements of Mexican society except the most reactionary clergy and landlords, and successfully catalyzed social liberalization, particularly in curbing the role of the Catholic Church, improving education and taking steps toward instituting womens civil rights.While the Mexican revolution and civil war may have subsided after 1920, armed conflicts did not cease, The most widespread conflict of this era was the battle between those favoring a secular society with separation of Church and State and those favoring supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church, which developed into an armed uprising by supporters of the Church that came to be called la Guerra Cristera.
26. Chinese Revolution
Years 1911 1911 Battle deaths 1,000 The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, began with the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911 and ended with the abdication of Emperor Puyi on February 12, 1912. The primary parties to the conflict were the Imperial forces of the Qing Dynasty (1644 1911), and the revolutionary forces of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui). The revolution is so named because 1911 is a Xinhai Year in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.The Xinhai Revolution was motivated by anger at corruption in the Qing government, by frustration with the governments inability to restrain the interventions of foreign powers, and by majority Han Chinese resentment toward a government dominated by an ethnic minority (the Manchus).
27. Cuba vs Partido Independiente de Color
Years 1911 1911 Battle deaths 1,050 The Negro Rebellion, also known as the Little Race War, the War of 1912, or The Twelve, was an armed conflict in Cuba, between Afro Cuban rebels on one side and the Cuban and US military on the other. It took place mainly in the eastern region of the island in 1912. The conflict involved the widespread massacre of Afro Cubans, by the Cuban Army, and an intervention by the United States military. Both the massacre and the presence of American troops quelled the violence so the unrest and the occupation ended after only a few weeks. The Afro Cubansleader, Evaristo Estenoz, was killed during the rebellion, and their party, the Independent Party of Color, was dissolved.The Afro Cubans lost between 3,000 to 6,000 killed, both combatants and non combatants. The results of the rebellion were disastrous; conditions in Cuba largely remained the same after 1912, except for the Independent Party of Color, which was dissolved.
28. First Sino Tibetan War
Years 1911 1912 Battle deaths 2,000 Xinhai Lhasa Turmoil refers to the racial clash in the Lhasa region of Tibet and various mutinies as a result of the Wuchang Uprising. The Wuchang Uprising unfolded on October 10, 1911, and marked the beginning of the Xinhai Revolution. Turmoils in the frontier regions of China began to spread.The revolutionaries led by Sun Yat sen insisted on getting rid of the Tartars and rejected the Manchus, creating a new regime based completely on the Han dominated China proper. The multiculturalism in China began to experience crisis on collapsing (Sun Yat sen later discovered the motto to be inappropriate, and modified it). It was one of the mistakes made by Sun Yat sen.
Turmoil in TibetThe influence of Wuchang Uprising rapidly spread to the frontier region. Many of the Qing Army in Tibet were members of Ge Lao Hui, and there were internal strifes going on. These Tibetan armies ended up struggling against each other, and Tibet fell into a state of anarchy. In the winter of 1911, the Qing Governor of Sichuan Zhao Erfeng were executed by radical civilians, and the situation turned worse as the region of Xikang fell into turmoil as well. The British colonial government in India along with the 13th Dalai Lama took the opportunity and ignited the contradiction between Han Chinese and Tibetan radicals. As a result, the Han Chinese in Tibet were being constantly killed, and Dalai Lama were able to eliminate the Qings influence in Tibet and return as the sole administrator of the region. The Qing army in Tibet were unable to resist the Dalai Lama and the British colonial army, and fled back to inland China via India.
29. Italo Turkish War
Years 1911 1912 Battle deaths 20,000 The Italo Turkish or Turco Italian War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Italy from September 28, 1911 to October 18, 1912.The war was started after Italian imperialist ambitions, notably for the Turkish provinces of Tripolitana and Cyrenaica, in Libya, as well as the Dodecanese archipelago, reached boiling point, causing the Italians to decide to take the provinces by force from the Ottoman Empire.The war, though minor in scale, was a key step towards the First World War, as it exposed the overall disorganisation and weakness of Turkey and awakened a ferocious nationalism in Italy that would, in 1922, help Benito Mussolini to power.
It also saw numerous technological advances developed in the early 1900s used in warfare; notably the aeroplane. On October 23, 1911, an Italian pilot flew over Turkish lines on a reconnaissance mission, and in 1912, the first ever bomb dropped from the air landed on Turkish troops in Libya.The war was concluded after the Italian army took Tripoli, and on October 18, a peace treaty was signed, handing over the provinces that Italy had started the war to control.The Italo Turkish war was also key in the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire as it showed, to the subjects of the empire, that the government in Constantinople was not invincible, thus strengthening the Arabic nationalism that T.E. Lawrence would later use to Britains advantage in the First World War.
30. Paraguay Coups
Years 1911 1912 Battle deaths 5,000 The revolution of August 1904 began as a popular movement, but Liberal rule quickly degenerated into factional feuding, military coups, and civil war. Political instability was extreme in the Liberal era, which saw twenty one governments in thirty six years. During the period 1904 to 1922, Paraguay had fifteen presidents. By 1908 the radicales had overthrown General Ferreira and the c
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