rules to play figure skating

Rules to play Figure Skating

21. Music
For competitive programs, figure skaters were once restricted to instrumental music, including vocal music if it contained no lyrics or words. Beginning in the 1997 98 season, the International Skating Union decided to allow lyrics or words in ice dancing. Although the rules were not relaxed for singles and pairs, judges did not always penalize violations. At the 2011 World Championships, Florent Amodios long program music included words but an insufficient number of judges voted for a deduction.In June 2012, the International Skating Union voted to allow skaters from all disciplines to choose music with words in their competitive programs beginning in the 2014 15 season.Skaters may use professional music editors so that their music meets requirements.Ice dancers are required to skate to music that has a definite beat or rhythm. Singles and pair skaters more often skate to the melody and phrasing of their music. For long programs, figure skaters generally search for music with different moods and tempos.Music selections for exhibitions are less constrained than for competitive programs.
22. Clothing
Skaters are generally free to select their own attire, with a few restrictions. In competition, females may wear a dress, typically with matching attached briefs, and since 2004, they may also choose trousers. They may wear opaque flesh colored leggings or tights under dresses and skirts, which may extend to cover their skates. Men must wear trousers they are not allowed to wear tights, although, officials do not always impose a deduction for violations.Matching costumes are not required in pair skating and ice dancing.

Competition costumes vary widely, from simple designs to heavily beaded or trimmed costumes. Skaters risk a deduction if a piece of their costume falls onto the ice surface. An official may stop a program if he or she deems there to be a hazard. Skaters and family members may design their own costumes, sometimes with assistance from their coach or choreographer, or turn to professional designers.Costumes may cost thousands of dollars if designed by a top level costumemaker.According to current ISU regulations, costumes in competition must be modest, dignified and appropriate for athletic competition not garish or theatrical in design. Clothing may, however, reflect the character of the music chosen.Although the use of flesh colored fabric means the costumes are often less revealing than they may appear, there have been repeated attempts to ban clothing that gives the impression of excessive nudity or that is otherwise inappropriate for athletic competition.In general, accessories or props are not permitted in competition.The ISU allowed an exception for the original dance in the 2007 2008 season but never since.

23. Age eligibility
To compete internationally on the senior level, skaters must be at least 15 before July 1 of the preceding year. To be eligible for junior level events, a skater must be at least 13 but under 19 before that date (or 21 for male pair skaters and ice dancers).A skater must meet the age requirement before it becomes July 1 in their place of birth. For example, Adelina Sotnikova was born a few hours into July 1, 1996 in Moscow and consequently, was not eligible to compete at Junior Worlds until 2011 and senior Worlds until 2013.The ISUs rules apply to international events. Many countries have no age requirements for domestic non ISU competitions, thus, some skaters compete at the senior level nationally while not eligible for international competition.

The International Skating Union has modified its age rules several times. Prior to the 1990s, 12 was the minimum age for senior international competitions. New rules were introduced in 1996, requiring skaters to be at least 15 before July 1 of the preceding year in order to compete at the Olympics, Worlds, Europeans, or Four Continents. The minimum age for all other senior internationals was 14 until July 2014, when it was raised to 15.

During the 2005 06 season, Mao Asada of Japan was age eligible to compete at the Grand Prix Final, where she claimed the title, but she was not permitted to compete at the Olympics. For the 2008 World Championships, the United States was obliged to send skaters who had placed 5th and 7th at nationals because higher placed skaters were too young, including a skater who missed the cutoff by 20 days. The ISU has strictly enforced the rules in recent years.However, American pair skater Natasha Kuchiki was allowed to compete at the 1990 World Championships when she was two years too young and American single skater Tara Lipinski, who was 13 at the time the 1996 rules were introduced, was grandfathered into remaining eligible for future events, along with other skaters who had already competed at the World Championships. A loophole also existed for a few years for underage skaters who had medaled at Junior Worlds.

24. Injuries and health issues
Competitive skaters generally do not wear helmets or other protective gear. There is a risk of head injuries, particularly in pair skating as a result of falls from lifts.Although pair skaters are most susceptible, serious head injuries can occur in all disciplines, including ice dancing.Partners have accidentally slashed each other with their skate blades.This may occur when partners drift too close during side by side camel spins. Several female pair skaters have suffered head/face injuries during this element, including Elena Berezhnaya,Jessica Dub
25. Rise of the Soviet Union
On February 15, 1961, the entire U.S. figure skating team and their coaches were killed in the crash of Sabena Flight 548 in Brussels, Belgium en route to the World Championships in Prague. This tragedy sent the U.S. skating program into a period of rebuilding.At the same time, the Soviet Union rose to become a dominant power in the sport, especially in the disciplines of pair skating and ice dancing. At every Winter Olympics from 1964 until 2006, a Soviet or Russian pair won gold in pair skating, often considered one of the longest winning streaks in modern sports history.The 1967 World Championships was the last event held in an outdoor rink.
26. Boot
Olympic figure skaters wear boots that are custom made for each foot and heavily reinforced with thick, stiff leather interiors and extra ankle bracing.
27. Boot tongue
Figure skates are made with wide tongues, with rubber or sponge padding for flexibility. Skates should be tied tightly to afford maximum control.
28. Blade
A modern blade has a very slight curve, equal to the radius of 180 220 cm. The blade is sharpened to produce a flat or concave cross section. To maintain a sharp edge, the bottom quarter inch of the blade is made from time tempered steel. The sweet spot of the blade is below the ball of the foot.
29. Heel
Skating boots originally were street boots, and heels have always been part of the look. Different figure skaters prefer different size heel ice dancers often wear high heels, which push their body weight forward onto the balls of their feet for deeper edges and better control of quick steps and changes of direction.
30. Hollow
The groove down the middle of the bottom of a figure skate blade is called the hollow. Finely ground edges on either side of the hollow provide control and speed. The depth of the hollow varies depending on the skaters event, weight and style.