rules to play bobsleigh
. Bobsledding, winter sport in which teams of two or four steer a sled down an icecovered track, reaching speeds of more than 135 km/h (84 mph). The fastest sled wins, often by mere hundredths of a second. The sports name comes from its early days, when sledders bobbed their bodies back and forth on straightaways to help the sled along. Bobbing was never proved to work and was soon discontinued, but it remained a part of the sports name.
. Brakes are applied by lifting a lever that lowers metal teeth into the ice.
. The side push handles must be retractable. The rear push handles are not retractable. All push handles are used to push the bob at the start.
. A hightech plastic composite helmet must be worn to prevent head injuries. Many have visors to protect the eyes, or the athlete may choose to wear goggles.
. Made of synthetic material, have spikes on the soles for traction during the start push.
. The sled consists of a main hull, a frame, a front and rear axle, and two sets of independent steel runners. The hull, also known as a cowling, is generally constructed of fibreglass and is open to allow team members to board and sit down.
Twoman sled specifications
. Twoman sled Minimum weight (excluding crew) 170kg Maximum weight (including crew and equipment) 390kg(Womens sled 340 kg.) Maximum length 2.70 metres Maximum width 0.67 metres.
Fourman sled specifications
. Minimum weight (excluding crew) 210kg Maximum weight (including crew and equipment) 630kg Maximum length 3.80 metres Maximum width 0.67 metres.
. The driver controls the sled with his hands and fingers, using rings that are attached by ropes to a steering mechanism.
. In 1924, a fourman race took place at the first ever Olympic Winter Games in Chamonix. A twoman event was added at the 1932 Lake Placid Games in a format that has remained to the present. The first womens bobsleigh event the twowoman bobsled was held in 2002.
Back and forth
. In its original form, the first races used skeleton sleds made of wood. However, they were soon replaced by steel sleds that came to be known as bobsleighs because of the way crews bobbed back and forth to increase their speed at the start. Today, the worlds top teams train yearround and compete mostly on artificial ice tracks in sleek hightech sleds made of fibreglass and steel.
. By the 1950s, the critical importance of the start had been recognized and athletes with explosive strength from other sports were drawn to bobsledding. In 1952, a critical rule change limiting the total weight of crew and sled ended the era of the super heavyweight bobsledder and rebalanced the sport as an athletic contest.
Strategy and Technique
. The most critical part of a bobsled run is its start. Teams focus on explosive starts because momentum at that point strongly affects the sleds speed throughout the course. Saving onetenth of a second during the start often translates to saving onethird of a second on the run as a whole. To set the bobsled in motion, team members sprint while pushing the sled forward. They run for about 50 m (164 ft) and then leap into the sled just before the f
Course and Rules
. Bobsled runs look like tunnels without roofs, and they twist and wind down hillsides or artificial slopes. Most have a base of concrete or stone, which is covered with snow and iced over. Courses measure from 1200 to 1600 m (0.75 to 1 mi) in length. Over that distance most courses drop 110 to 125 m (360 to 410 ft) in elevation. They feature straightaways that are barely wider than the sleds and curves that range from slight deviations to 360
. To provide traction during the start, bobsledders wear spiked shoes that grip the ice. These spikes may not exceed 4 mm (.16 in). Bobsledders also wear skintight uniforms and gloves that make them more aerodynamic. All competitors must wear helmets. Drivers must wear goggles. Bobsleds are made of aluminum and steel, although synthetic materials such as kevlar and carbon are becoming increasingly popular. All sleds must fit international specific
. All international events are governed by the FIBT, which has a membership of about 50 nations. The major competitions are the Winter Olympics, the world championships, and the contests on the annual World Cup circuit. All of these events include twoman and fourman races. Countries may enter two sleds in World Cup competition and three sleds in Olympic and world championship competition. The starting order is decided by a ranking based on previous
. Modern tracks are made of concrete, coated with ice. They are required to have at least one straight section and one labyrinth (three turns in quick succession without a straight section). Ideally, a modern track should be 1,200 to 1,300 metres (3,900 4,300 ft) long and have at least fifteen curves. Speeds may exceed 120 kilometres per hour (75 mph), and some curves can subject the crews to as much as 5 g. Some bobsleigh tracks are also used for
Sleighs and crews
. Modern day sleighs combine light metals, steel runners, and an aerodynamic composite body. Competition sleighs must be a maximum of 3.80 metres (12.5 ft) long (4crew) or 2.70 metres (8.9 ft) long (2crew). The runners on both are set at 0.67 metres (2.2 ft) gauge. Until the weightlimit rule was added in 1952, bobsleigh crews tended to be very heavy to ensure the greatest possible speed. Now, the maximum weight, including crew, is 630 kilograms (1,
. Individual runs down the course, or heats, begin from a standing start, with the crew pushing the sled for up to 50 metres (160 ft) before boarding; though the pilot does not steer, grooves in the ice make steering unnecessary until the sled leaves the starting area. While poor form during the initial push can lose a team the heat, it is otherwise rarely, if ever, decisive. Over the rest of the course, a sleighs speed depends on its weight, aerod
. The first organized competition in the sport was held on the Cresta Run on January 5, 1898, with fivepassenger sleds with two of the passengers being women. For better steering, they were equipped with four runners, positioned on axles much like the four wheels of a car. With the new design, speeds on the mountainside became dangerously fast, so an artificial bobsled run with a gentler slope was built at St. Moritz in 1902.Bobsledding spread rapi
. The name bobsledding came from early racers bobbing their heads backwards and forwards. It didnt work, but the name stayed with the sport. Bobsleigh and bobsledding are both correct names for the large sled made up of two sections linked together. The frame is made of metal, the shell of fiberglass or similar material. There are two sizes, twoman and fourman. Until the 1950s, U. S. bobsledders were the best in the world, in part because of techno
. In the time during which the track is subject to the control of the FIBT (official training and races), no electronic or electrical measuring devices or equipment legalized by the FIBT may be used on the sled, on the team or on t he track. TV cameras belonging to the official producer are not subject to this article. In cases of exception, the FIBT or the Jury concerned can allow specific measurements. In these cases, all the participants must be
. Training and race suits with short pants and short sleeves ar e not allowed. No aerodynamic elements whatsoever may be attached either outside or under the race suit. Race suits must be manufactured from an uncoated textile.
. Bobsleigh Weights Minimum weight and maximum weight of the bobs are limited. The following is allowed 1) Minimum weight (bob including runners, excluding the crew) Two men bob 170 Kg; Four men bob 210 Kg 2) Maximum w eight (including crew members and equipment required) Two men bob 390 Kg; Four men bob (Men and/or Women) 630 Kg; Womens bob 340 Kg
This will create some excitement
. Humphries and Heather Moyse won the womens gold at the Sochi Games followed by a pair of American sleds Meyers Taylor with Lauryn Williams and Jamie Greubel with pusher Aja Evans.
. A bobsled race takes place on a specially built track called a run. The FIBT has standards for all new bobsled runs, which must also be usable for luge and skeleton races. There are 16 bobsled runs in the world, and 14 have FIBT approval. FIBT standards regulate the length, curve construction, vertical drop and centrifugal force the bobsledders experience in curves. Whenever possible, new tracks follow the curves of the terrain to minimize enviro
The Physics of Bobsledding
. Winning a bobsled race starts long before the pushoff stretch it starts with the design of a fast, efficient bobsled. A good bobsled has to take advantage of the physical forces that help it accelerate, and it has to minimize the forces that slow it down. Acceleration due to gravity is the same for all of the bobsleds in the race its the physical constant of 9.8 meters per second squared. Drag, friction, and momentum, on the other hand, all va