vitamins

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Vitamin E

Vitamins

Vitamin E

  • Is an antioxidant (protects cell membranes against oxidative damage; prevents LDL oxidation) that supports immune function, prevents blood clotting, and dilates blood vessels.
  • Used to prevent and treat heart disease, cancer, macular degeneration, and cataracts, enhance immune response, reduce oxidative stress, and improve cognitive function.
  • Deficiency is rare, except in those who are malnourished or who have fat-malabsorption conditions (celiac disease, cystic fibrosis); however, suboptimal intake is common and associated with increased risk of heart disease.
  • Symptoms of deficiency include impaired balance and coordination, damage to sensory nerves (peripheral neuropathy), muscle weakness (myopathy), and damage to the retina of the eye (pigmented retinopathy).
  • Drugs that deplete vitamin E: cholestyramine, colestipol, isoniazid, mineral oil, orlistat, sucralfate, phenobarbitol, phenytoin, and carbamazepine.
  • Vitamin E may enhance the blood-thinning effects of warfarin.
  • It is difficult to achieve the RDA from diet alone; supplements are particularly necessary to achieve amounts needed for disease prevention.
  • Look for natural vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol); the synthetic form (dl-alphatocopherol) is less bioavailable (i.e., less absorbable) and only half as potent.

  • Food Sources : Vegetable oils (olive, sunfl ower, saffl ower oils), nuts, whole grains, and green leafy vegetables
  • Adequate Intake : (mg/day)
    Men = 15
    Women = 15
    Pregnancy = 15
    Lactation = 19
  • Upper Limit : (mg/day)
    Men = 1,000
    Women = 1,000
    Pregnancy = 1,000
    Lactation = 1,000
    Note: 1 mg alphatocopherol 1.5 IU
  • Side Effects : No adverse effects from vitamin Econtaining foods; supplements may increase the risk of bleeding in some individuals, particularly those taking bloodthinning drugs


  • Vitamin B2 Ribofl avin
    Vitamin B3 Niacin
    Vitamin K
    Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid
    Vitamin D
    Vitamin B12 Cobalamin
    Vitamin B1 Thiamine
    Vitamin A
    Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine
    Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid
    Folate Folic Acid
    Vitamin E
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