vitamins

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Vitamin D

Vitamins

Vitamin D

  • Regulates calcium and phosphorus levels and promotes absorption of these minerals for growth of bones and teeth; involved in insulin secretion; supports immune function; regulates blood pressure.
  • Vitamin D can be produced in the skin upon exposure to sunlight or must be obtained from the diet.
  • Used to prevent and treat osteoporosis, psoriasis, autoimmune disease, and to reduce the risk of cancer.
  • Deficiency occurs with inadequate dietary intake, limited sun exposure, kidney or liver disease, and alcoholism. Elderly, dark-skinned, obese people, or those with inflammatory bowel disease and fat-malabsorption syndromes (celiac disease and cystic fi brosis) are also at greater risk.
  • Deficiency causes rickets (weak, deformed bones) in children, osteomalacia (soft bones) and osteoporosis in adults, dental problems, muscle weakness, and tooth decay.
  • Drugs that deplete vitamin D: carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, cimetidine, ranitidine, cholestyramine, colestipol, orlistat, and mineral oil.
  • Since vitamin D is found in few foods and at low amounts, a supplement is recommended for most people. Most multivitamins provide 400 IU (10 mcg). Those with limited sun exposure, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and those over age 65 should consider additional vitamin D.

  • Food Sources : Fatty fi sh (mackerel, salmon, sardines), fi sh liver oils, eggs from hens fed vitamin D, and milk
  • Adequate Intake : (mcg/day)*
    Men and
    Women 1950 years = 5 5070 = 10 71+ = 15
    Pregnancy = 5
    Lactation = 5
  • Upper Limit : (mcg/day)
    Men = 50
    Women = 50
    Pregnancy = 50
    Lactation = 50
    Note: 1 mcg = 40 IU
  • Side Effects : Hypercalcemia (calcium deposits in kidneys, arteries, heart, ears, and lungs, and bone loss); symptoms include headache, weakness, nausea, vomiting, constipation


  • Vitamin B2 Ribofl avin
    Vitamin B3 Niacin
    Vitamin A
    Vitamin B1 Thiamine
    Vitamin E
    Folate Folic Acid
    Vitamin D
    Biotin
    Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid
    Vitamin K
    Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid
    Vitamin B12 Cobalamin
    More ...

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