simple science

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Simple Science

291. Blasting
Some Uses of Electricity:
Until recently, dynamiting was attended with serious danger, owing to the fact that the person who applied the torch to the fuse could not make a safe retreat before the explosion. Now a fine wire is inserted in the fuse, and when everything is in readiness, the ends of the wire are attached to the poles of a distant battery and the heat developed in the wire ignites the fuse.
292. Welding of Metals
Some Uses of Electricity:
Metals are fused and welded by the use of the electric current. The metal pieces which are to be welded are pressed together and a powerful current is passed through their junction. So great is the heat developed that the metals melt and fuse, and on cooling show perfect union.
293. Chemical Effects
Some Uses of Electricity:
The Plating of Gold, Silver, and Other Metals. If strips of lead or rods of carbon are connected to the terminals of an electric cell, as in Figure 208, and are then dipped into a solution of copper sulphate, the strip in connection with the negative terminal of the cell soon becomes thinly plated with a coating of copper. If a solution of silver nitrate is used in place of the copper sulphate, the coating formed will be of silver instead of copper. So long as the current flows and there is any metal present in the solution, the coating continues to form on the negative electrode, and becomes thicker and thicker.

The process by which metal is taken out of solution, as silver out of silver nitrate and copper out of copper sulphate, and is in turn deposited as a coating on another substance, is called electroplating. An electric current can separate a liquid into some of its various constituents and to deposit one of the metal constituents on the negative electrode.

Since copper is constantly taken out of the solution of copper sulphate for deposit upon the negative electrode, the amount of copper remaining in the solution steadily decreases, and finally there is none of it left for deposit. In order to overcome this, the positive electrode should be made of the same metal as that which is to be deposited. The positive metal electrode gradually dissolves and replaces the metal lost from the solution by deposit and electroplating can continue as long as any positive electrode remains.

Practically all silver, gold, and nickel plating is done in this way; machine, bicycle, and motor attachments are not solid, but are of cheaper material electrically plated with nickel. When spoons are to be plated, they are hung in a bath of silver nitrate side by side with a thick slab of pure silver, as in Figure. The spoons are connected with the negative terminal of the battery, while the slab of pure silver is connected with the positive terminal of the same battery. The length of time that the current flows determines the thickness of the plating.

FIG. - Carbon rods in a solution of copper sulphate.

FIG. - Plating spoons by electricity.
294. How Pure Metal is obtained from Ore
Some Uses of Electricity:
When ore is mined, it contains in addition to the desired metal many other substances. In order to separate out the desired metal, the ore is placed in some suitable acid bath, and is connected with the positive terminal of a battery, thus taking the place of the silver slab in the last Section. When current flows, any pure metal which is present is dissolved out of the ore and is deposited on a convenient negative electrode, while the impurities remain in the ore or drop as sediment to the bottom of the vessel. Metals separated from the ore by electricity are called electrolytic metals and are the purest obtainable.
295. Printing
Some Uses of Electricity:
The ability of the electric current to decompose a liquid and to deposit a metal constituent has practically revolutionized the process of printing. Formerly, type was arranged and retained in position until the required number of impressions had been made, the type meanwhile being unavailable for other uses. Moreover, the printing of a second edition necessitated practically as great labor as did the first edition, the type being necessarily set afresh. Now, however, the type is set up and a mold of it is taken in wax. This mold is coated with graphite to make it a conductor and is then suspended in a bath of copper sulphate, side by side with a slab of pure copper. Current is sent through the solution as described earlier, until a thin coating of copper has been deposited on the mold. The mold is then taken from the bath, and the wax is replaced by some metal which gives strength and support to the thin copper plate. From this copper plate, which is an exact reproduction of the original type, many thousand copies can be printed. The plate can be preserved and used from time to time for later editions, and the original type can be put back into the cases and used again.
296. An Electric Current acts like a Magnet
Modern Electrical Inventions:
In order to understand the action of the electric bell, we must consider a third effect which an electric current can cause. Connect some cells as shown in Figure 200 and close the circuit through a stout heavy copper wire, dipping a portion of the wire into fine iron filings. A thick cluster of filings will adhere to the wire, and will continue to cling to it so long as the current flows. If the current is broken, the filings fall from the wire, and only so long as the current flows through the wire does the wire have power to attract iron filings. An electric current makes a wire equivalent to a magnet, giving it the power to attract iron filings.

Although such a straight current bearing wire attracts iron filings, its power of attraction is very small; but its magnetic strength can be increased by coiling as in Figure. Such an arrangement of wire is known as a helix or solenoid, and is capable of lifting or pulling larger and more numerous filings and even good-sized pieces of iron, such as tacks. Filings do not adhere to the sides of the helix, but they cling in clusters to the ends of the coil. This shows that the ends of the helix have magnetic power but not the sides.

If a soft iron nail or its equivalent is slipped within the coil, the lifting and attractive power of the coil is increased, and comparatively heavy weights can be lifted.

A coil of wire traversed by an electric current and containing a core of soft iron has the power of attracting and moving heavy iron objects; that is, it acts like a magnet. Such an arrangement is called an electromagnet. As soon as the current ceases to flow, the electromagnet loses its magnetic power and becomes merely iron and wire without magnetic attraction.

If many cells are used, the strength of the electromagnet is increased, and if the coil is wound closely, as in Figure, instead of loosely, as in Figure, the magnetic strength is still further increased. The strength of any electromagnet depends upon the number of coils wound on the iron core and upon the strength of the current which is sent through the coils.

To increase the strength of the electromagnet still further, the so-called horseshoe shape is used. In such an arrangement there is practically the strength of two separate electromagnets.

FIG. - A wire carrying current attracts iron filings.

FIG. - A loosely wound coil of wire.

FIG. - Coil and soft iron rod.

FIG. - An electromagnet.

FIG. - A horseshoe electromagnet is powerful enough to support heavy weights.
297. The Electric Bell
Modern Electrical Inventions:
The ringing of the electric bell is due to the attractive power of an electromagnet. By the pushing of a button connection is made with a battery, and current flows through the wire wound on the iron spools, and further to the screw P which presses against the soft iron strip or armature S; and from S the current flows back to the battery. As soon as the current flows, the coils become magnetic and attract the soft iron armature, drawing it forward and causing the clapper to strike the bell. In this position, S no longer touches the screw P, and hence there is no complete path for the electricity, and the current ceases. But the attractive, magnetic power of the coils stops as soon as the current ceases; hence there is nothing to hold the armature down, and it flies back to its former position. In doing this, however, the armature makes contact at P through the spring, and the current flows once more; as a result the coils again become magnets, the armature is again drawn forward, and the clapper again strikes the bell. But immediately afterwards the armature springs backward and makes contact at P and the entire operation is repeated. So long as we press the button this process continues producing what sounds like a continuous jingle; in reality the clapper strikes the bell every time a current passes through the electromagnet.

FIG. - The electric bell.
298. The Push Button
Modern Electrical Inventions:
The push button is an essential part of every electric bell, because without it the bell either would not ring at all, or would ring incessantly until the cell was exhausted. When the push button is free, as in Figure, the cell terminals are not connected in an unbroken path, and hence the current does not flow. When, however, the button is pressed, the current has a complete path, provided there is the proper connection at S. That is, the pressure on the push button permits current to flow to the bell. The flow of this current then depends solely upon the connection at S, which is alternately made and broken, and in this way produces sound.

The sign "Bell out of order" is usually due to the fact that the battery is either temporarily or permanently exhausted. In warm weather the liquid in the cell may dry up and cause stoppage of the current. If fresh liquid is poured into the vessel so that the chemical action of the acid on the zinc is renewed, the current again flows. Another explanation of an out-of-order bell is that the liquid may have eaten up all the zinc; if this is the case, the insertion of a fresh strip of zinc will remove the difficulty and the current will flow. If dry cells are used, there is no remedy except in the purchase of new cells.

FIG. - Push button.
299. How Electricity may be lost to Use
Modern Electrical Inventions:
In the electric bell, we saw that an air gap at the push button stopped the flow of electricity. If we cut the wire connecting the poles of a battery, the current ceases because an air gap intervenes and electricity does not readily pass through air. Many substances besides air stop the flow of electricity. If a strip of glass, rubber, mica, or paraffin is introduced anywhere in a circuit, the current ceases. If a metal is inserted in the gap, the current again flows. Substances which, like an air gap, interfere with the flow of electricity are called non-conductors, or, more commonly, insulators. Substances which, like the earth, the human body, and all other moist objects, conduct electricity are conductors. If the telephone and electric light wires in our houses were not insulated by a covering of thread, or cloth, or other non conducting material, the electricity would escape into surrounding objects instead of flowing through the wire and producing sound and light.

In our city streets, the overhead wires are supported on glass knobs or are closely wrapped, in order to prevent the escape of electricity through the poles to the ground. In order to have a steady, dependable current, the wire carrying the current must be insulated.

Lack of insulation means not only the loss of current for practical uses, but also serious consequences in the event of the crossing of current-bearing wires. If two wires properly insulated touch each other, the currents flow along their respective wires unaltered; if, however, two uninsulated wires touch, some of the electricity flows from one to the other. Heat is developed as a result of this transference, and the heat thus developed is sometimes so great that fire occurs. For this reason, wires are heavily insulated and extra protection is provided at points where numerous wires touch or cross.

Conductors and insulators are necessary to the efficient and economic flow of a current, the insulator preventing the escape of electricity and lessening the danger of fire, and the conductor carrying the current.
300. The Telegraph
Modern Electrical Inventions:
Telegraphy is the process of transmitting messages from place to place by means of an electric current. The principle underlying the action of the telegraph is the principle upon which the electric bell operates; namely, that a piece of soft iron becomes a magnet while a current flows around it, but loses its magnetism as soon as the current ceases.

In the electric bell, the electromagnet, clapper, push button, and battery are relatively near, - usually all are located in the same building; while in the telegraph the current may travel miles before it reaches the electromagnet and produces motion of the armature.

The fundamental connections of the telegraph are shown in Figure. If the key K is pressed down by an operator in Philadelphia, the current from the battery (only one cell is shown for simplicity) flows through the line to New York, passes through the electromagnet M, and thence back to Philadelphia. As long as the key K is pressed down, the coil M acts as a magnet and attracts and holds fast the armature A; but as soon as K is released, the current is broken, M loses its magnetism, and the armature is pulled back by the spring D. By a mechanical device, tape is drawn uniformly under the light marker P attached to the armature. If K is closed for but a short time, the armature is drawn down for but a short interval, and the marker registers a dot on the tape. If K is closed for a longer time, a short dash is made by the marker, and, in general, the length of time that K is closed determines the length of the marks recorded on the tape. The telegraphic alphabet consists of dots and dashes and their various combinations, and hence an interpretation of the dot and dash symbols recorded on the tape is all that is necessary for the receiving of a telegraphic message.

The Morse telegraphic code, consisting of dots, dashes, and spaces, is given in Figure.

The telegraph is now such a universal means of communication between distant points that one wonders how business was conducted before its invention in 1832 by S.F.B. Morse.

FIG. - Diagram of the electric telegraph.

FIG. - The Morse telegraphic code.

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