rules to play rowing
. Rowing often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport with origins back to Ancient Egyptian times. It is based on propelling a boat racing shell on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat. The sport can be either recreational focusing on learning the technique of rowing, or competitive where athletes race against each other in boats.There are a number of different boat classe
. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, and uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward towards the bow. This may be done on a canal, river, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance.Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains fairly consistent throughout the world, there
. In sweep or sweepoar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands. This is generally done in pairs, fours, and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rowers oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, and the starboard side as bow side; this applies even if the stroke oarsman is rowing on bow sid
. In sculling each rower has two oars or sculls, one in each hand. Sculling is usually done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles. The oar in the scullers right hand extends to port stroke side, and the oar in the left hand extends to starboard bow side.
Anatomy of a stroke
. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points. The catch, which is placement of the oar blade in the water, and the extraction, also known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water. The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke that propels the boat.At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward
Breathing during a rowing stroke
. There are two schools of thought with respect to the appropriate breathing technique during the rowing motion: Full lungs at the catch and empty lungs at the catch.With the full lung technique, rowers exhale during the stroke and inhale during the recovery. In laboured circumstances, rowers will take a quick pant at the end of the stroke before taking a deep breath on the recovery that fills the lungs by the time the catch is reached.In the empty
. Rowing is a cyclic or intermittent form of propulsion such that in the quasisteady state the motion of the system the system comprising the rower, the oars, and the boat, is repeated regularly. In order to maintain the steadystate propulsion of the system without either accelerating or decelerating the system, the sum of all the external forces on the system, averaged over the cycle, must be zero. Thus, the average drag retarding force on the sys
Distinction from other watercraft
. The distinction between rowing and other forms of water transport, such as canoeing or kayaking, is that in rowing the oars are held in place at a pivot point that is in a fixed position relative to the boat, this point is the load point for the oar to act as a second class lever the blade fixed in the water is the fulcrum. In flatwater rowing, the boat also called a shell or fine boat is narrow to avoid drag, and the oars are attached to oarlock
Fitness and health
. Rowing is one of the few nonweight bearing sports that exercises all the major muscle groups, including quads, biceps, triceps, lats, glutes and abdominal muscles. Rowing improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. Highperformance rowers tend to be tall and muscular: although extra weight does increase the drag on the boat, the larger athletes increased power tends to be more significant. The increased power is achieved through incre
. Single and double sculls are usually steered by the scullers pulling harder on one side or the other. In other boats, there is a rudder, controlled by the coxswain, if present, or by one of the crew. In the latter case, the rudder cable is attached to the toe of one of his shoes which can pivot about the ball of the foot, moving the cable left or right. The bowman may steer since he has the best vision when looking over his shoulder. On straighte
. Oars are used to propel the boat. They are long sculling: 250300 cm; rowing 340360 cm poles with one flat end about 50 cm long and 25 cm wide, called the blade. Classic oars were made out of wood, but modern oars are made from more expensive and durable synthetic material, the most common being carbon fiber.An oar is often referred to as a blade in the case of sweep oar rowing and as a scull in the case of sculling. A sculling oar is shorter and
. Indoor rowing on ergometer, or tank is a way to train technique and strength by going through the same motions as rowing, with resistance. Indoor rowing is helpful when the lake is frozen, or there are no lakes near by.
. A rowing tank is an indoor facility which attempts to mimic the conditions rowers face on open water. Rowing tanks are primarily used for offseason rowing, muscle specific conditioning and technique training, or simply when bad weather doesnt allow for open water training.
. Ergometer rowing machines colloquially ergs or ergo simulate the rowing action and provide a means of training on land when waterborne training is restricted, and of measuring rowing fitness. Ergometers do not simulate the lateral balance challenges, the exact resistance of water, or the exact motions of true rowing including the sweep of the oar handles. For that reason ergometer scores are generally not used as the sole selection criterion for
. Boats are conveyed to competitions on special trailers accommodating up to 20 boats.
. Racing boats are stored in boat houses. These are specially designed storage areas which usually consist of a long twostory building with a large door at one end which leads out to a pontoon or slipway on the river or lakeside. The boats are stored on racks horizontal bars, usually metal on the ground floor. Oars, riggers, and other equipment is stored around the boats. Boat houses are typically associated with rowing clubs and include some socia
Side by side
. Most races that are held in the spring and summer feature side by side racing, or sprint racing, sometimes called a regatta; all the boats start at the same time from a stationary position and the winner is the boat that crosses the finish line first. The number of boats in a race typically varies between two which is sometimes referred to as a dual race to six, but any number of boats can start together if the course is wide enough.
. Head races are time trial processional races that take place from autumn fall to early spring depending on local conditions. Boats begin with a rolling start at intervals of 10 20 seconds, and are timed over a set distance. Head courses usually vary in length from 2,000 metres 1.24 mi to 12,000 metres 7.46 mi, though there are longer races such as the Boston Rowing Marathon and shorter such as Pairs Head. The oldest, and arguably most famous,
. A bumps race is a multiday race beginning with crews lined up along the river at set intervals. They start simultaneously and all pursue the boat ahead while avoiding being bumped by a boat from behind. If a crew overtakes or makes physical contact with the crew ahead, a bump is awarded. As a result, damage to boats and equipment is common during bumps racing. To avoid damage the cox of the crew being bumped may concede the bump before contact is
. The stake format was often used in early American races. Competitors line up at the start, race to a stake, moored boat, or buoy some distance away, and return. The 180
Rules of racing
. There are many differing sets of rules governing racing, and these are generally defined by the governing body of the sport in a particular country
. In all boats, with the exception of single sculls, each rower is numbered in sequential order, low numbers at the bow, up to the highest at the stern. The person seated on the first seat is called the bowman, or just bow, whilst the rower closest to the stern is called the strokeman or just stroke. There are some exceptions to this some UK coastal rowers, and in France, Spain, and Italy rowers number from stern to bow.In addition to this, certai
. The coxswain or simply the cox is the member who sits in the boat facing the bow, steers the boat, and coordinates the power and rhythm of the rowers by communicating to the crew through a device called a cox box and speakers. They usually sit in the stern of the boat, except in bowloaders where the coxswain lies in the bow. Bowloader are usually seen as the coxed four and coxed pair type of boat.It is an advantage for the coxswain to be light,
. In most levels of rowing there are different weight classes typically open or referred to as heavyweight and lightweight. Competitive rowing favours tall, muscular athletes due to the additional leverage height provides in pulling the oar through the water as well as the explosive power needed to propel the boat at high speed.
. Heavyweight rowers of both sexes tend to be very tall, broadshouldered, have long arms and legs as well as tremendous cardiovascular capacity and very low body fat ratios. Olympic or International level heavyweight male oarsmen are typically anywhere between 190 cm and 206 cm 63 to 69 tall with most being around 198 cm 66 and weighing approximately 102 kg 225 lb with about 6 to 7% body fat.Heavyweight women are slightly shorter at around 186 cm 6
. Unlike most other noncombat sports, rowing has a special weight category called lightweight Lwt for short. According to FISA, this weight category was introduced to encourage more universality in the sport especially among nations with less statuesque people. The first lightweight events were held at the World Championships in 1974 for men and 1985 for women. Lightweight rowing was added to the Olympics in 1996.
. Adaptive rowing is a special category of races for those with physical disabilities. Under FISA rules there are 5 boat classes for adaptive rowers; mixed 2 men and 2 women plus cox LTA Legs, Trunk, Arms, mixed intellectual disability 2 men and 2 women plus cox LTA Legs, Trunk, Arms, mixed 1 man and 1 woman TA Trunk and Arms, and mens and womens AS Arms and Shoulders. Events are held at the World Rowing Championships and were also held at the 2008
. The flattened, or spoonshaped, part of an oar that touches the water during rowing.
. A device that holds the bow of a boat before a race, then drops below the water on the starting signal.
. A rubber ball attached to the bow tip of a shell to protect against damage and injury in case of a collision.
. A collar around the shaft of the oar that keeps the oar from slipping through the oarlock and can be adjusted up and down the oar to increase or decrease leverage.
. An electronic device used by the coxswain to amplify his or her voice and broadcast it through speakers located throughout the shell.
. A Ushaped device on a boats gunwale where the oar rests and swings; also called a rowlock.
. A framework attached to the shell and used to support the oarlock; also called a rigger.
. The plastic jacket on the shaft of the oar upon which is mounted a button, used to secure the blade to the oarlock.