rules to play hang gliding
Hang glider sailcloth
. There are basically two types of sail materials used in hang glider sails Woven Polyester Fabrics, and Composite Laminated Fabrics made of some combination of polyester film and polyester fibers.Woven polyester sailcloth is a very tight weave of small diameter polyester fibers that has been stabilized by the hot press impregnation of a polyester resin. The resin impregnation is required to provide resistance to distortion and stretch. This resist
Triangle control frame
. In most hang gliders, the control is and has been achieved using a horizontal bar held by the pilot, also known as triangle control frame (TCF), control bar or base bar. This bar is usually pulled to allow for greater speed. Either end of the control bar is attached to an upright, where both extend and are connected to the main body of the glider. This creates the shape of a triangle or A Frame. In many of these configurations additional wheels o
Training and safety
. Due to the poor safety record of early hang gliding pioneers, the sport has traditionally been considered unsafe. Advances in pilot training and glider construction have led to a much improved safety record. Modern hang gliders are very sturdy when constructed to HGMA[expand acronym], BHPA, DHV[expand acronym], or other certified standards using modern materials. Although lightweight they can be easily damaged, either through misuse or by continu
. Launch techniques include foot launching from a hill, tow launching from a ground based tow system, aerotowing (behind a powered aircraft), powered harnesses, and being towed up by a boat. Modern winch tows typically utilize hydraulic systems designed to regulate line tension, this reduces scenarios for lock out as strong winds result in additional length of rope spooling out rather than direct tension on the tow line. Other more exotic launch te
Soaring flight and cross
. A glider in flight is continuously descending. To achieve an extended flight, the pilot must seek air currents rising faster than the sink rate of the glider. Selecting the sources of rising air currents is the skill that has to be mastered if the pilot wants to achieve flying long distances, known as cross country (XC). Rising air masses derive from the following sources.
. The most commonly used source of lift is created by the suns energy heating the ground which in turn heats the air above it. This warm air rises in columns known as thermals. Soaring pilots quickly become aware of land features which can generate thermals and their trigger points downwind, because thermals have a surface tension with the ground and roll until hitting a trigger point. When the thermal lifts, the first indicator are the swooping bi
. Ridge lift occurs when the wind encounters a mountain, cliff or hill. The air is pushed up the windward face of the mountain, creating lift. The area of lift extending from the ridge is called the lift band. Providing the air is rising faster than the gliders sink rate, gliders can soar and climb in the rising air by flying within the lift band and at right angle to the ridge. Ridge soaring is also known as slope soaring.
. The third main type of lift used by glider pilots is the lee waves that occur near mountains. The obstruction to the airflow can generate standing waves with alternating areas of lift and sink. The top of each wave peak is often marked by lenticular cloud formations.
. Another form of lift results from the convergence of air masses, as with a sea breeze front. More exotic forms of lift are the polar vortices which the Perlan Project hopes to use to soar to great altitudes. A rare phenomenon known as Morning Glory has also been used by glider pilots in Australia.
. With each generation of materials and with the improvements in aerodynamics, the performance of hang gliders has increased. One measure of performance is the glide ratio. For example, a ratio of 121 means that in smooth air a glider can travel forward 12 metres while only losing 1 metre of altitude.Some performance figures as of 2006 Topless gliders (no kingpost) glide ratio ~171, speed range ~30 to >145 km h, best glide at 45 to 60 km h Rigid wi
. The extra weight provided by ballast is advantageous if the lift is likely to be strong. Although heavier gliders have a slight disadvantage when climbing in rising air, they achieve a higher speed at any given glide angle. This is an advantage in strong conditions when the gliders spend only little time climbing in thermals.
. Most flexible wings are set up with near neutral roll due to sideslip (anhedral effect). In the roll axis, the pilot shifts his body mass using the wing control bar, applying a rolling moment directly to the wing. The flexible wing is built to flex differentially across the span in response to the pilot applied roll moment. For example, if the pilot shifts his weight to the right, the right wing trailing edge flexes up more than the left, allowin
. The pitch control response is direct and very efficient. It is partially stabilized by the sweep of the wings. The wing centre of gravity is close to the hang point and, at the trim speed, the wing will fly hands off and return to trim after being disturbed. The weight shift control system only works when the wing is positively loaded (right side up). Positive pitching devices such as reflex lines or washout rods are employed to maintain a minimu
. Gliding pilots are able to sense the acceleration forces when they first hit a thermal, but have difficulty gauging constant motion. Thus it is difficult to detect the difference between constantly rising air and constantly sinking air. A variometer is a very sensitive vertical speed indicator. The variometer indicates climb rate or sink rate with audio signals (beeps) and or a visual display. These units are generally electronic, vary in sophist
. Pilots use 2 way radio for training purposes, for communicating with other pilots in the air, and with their ground crew when traveling on cross country flights.One type of radios used are PTT (push to talk) handheld transceivers, operating in VHF FM. Usually a microphone is incorporated in the helmet, and the PTT switch is either fixed to the outside of the helmet, or strapped to a finger. Operating a VHF band radio without an appropriate licens
. GPS (global positioning system) can be interesting to view a GPS track of a flight when back on the ground, to analyze flying technique, and to assist flight performance in competitions and cross country flying, where restricted Airspace needs to be considered.
. A figure with a bank angle of more than 90
. For competitive purposes, there are three classes of hang glider.Class 1 The flexible wing hang glider, having flight controlled by a wing whose shape changes by virtue of the shifted weight of the pilot. This is not a paraglider.Class 5 The rigid wing hang glider, having flight controlled by spoilers, typically on top of the wing.In both flexible and rigid wings the pilot hangs below the wing without any additional fairing.Class 2 (designated by
Pre lodgement service
. If you are planning a gliding activity on a QPWS managed area contact the local QPWS office to discuss your proposal.
Permits and approvals
. The granting of leases, occupational permits or other authorities for development of sites for hang gliding paragliding will be assessed on a case by case basis but, as a general principle, will be discouraged.
Forms and fees
. A person or organisations wishing to conduct hang gliding or paragliding activities on QPWS managed areas should provide full details of the proposed activities to the relevant QPWS district manager.No fees apply to the issue of permits and other authorities applying to the use of aircraft and recreational craft in QPWS managed areas. However, fees or in kind contributions may be negotiated as part of a deed of agreement.
. Entry to the XC League is open to all flying members of the BHPA who have a Pilot or higher rating. The Pilot exam demonstrates the knowledge and skills necessary for XC planning, in particular for avoiding restricted airspace.If you are a Club Pilot and interested in XC flying, you can enter your flights provided you are flying within the coaching environment of your club. The following conditions must be metYou must have a full understanding of
Glider Class and Launch
. The XC League is open to all classes of paragliders (and hang gliders, where applicable). It is the responsibility of the pilot to meet any BHPA requirements in terms of ratings and registration appropriate to the glider they are flying. Tandem gliders are allowed but only the pilot in command scores. Launches can be from a hill or winch.
. An single entry fee is required for the main National and International leagues. If your club league is listed, you can enter flights into this without having to pay and if your flight qualifies for the main leagues you can opt to enter these as well.