rules to play biathlon

Individual
1. The 20 kilometres (12 mi) individual race (15 km for women) is the oldest biathlon event; the distance is skied over five laps. The biathlete shoots four times at any shooting lane, in the order of prone, standing, prone, standing, totaling 20 targets. For each missed target a fixed penalty time, usually one minute, is added to the skiing time of the biathlete. Competitors starts are staggered, normally by 30 seconds. .....
Sprint
2. The sprint is 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) for men and 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) for women; the distance is skied over three laps. The biathlete shoots twice at any shooting lane, once prone and once standing, for a total of 10 shots. For each miss, a penalty loop of 150 metres must be skied before the race can be continued. As in the individual competition, the biathletes start in intervals. .....
Pursuit
3. In a pursuit, biathletes starts are separated by their time differences from a previous race, most commonly a sprint. The contestant crossing the finish line first is the winner. The distance is 12.5 kilometres (7.8 mi) for men and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) for women, skied over five laps; there are four shooting bouts (two prone, two standing, in that order), and each miss means a penalty loop of 150 m. To prevent awkward and or dangerous crowding .....
Mass start
4. In the mass start, all biathletes start at the same time and the first across the finish line wins. In this 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) or 12.5 kilometres (7.8 mi) for women competition, the distance is skied over five laps; there are four bouts of shooting (two prone, two standing, in that order) with the first shooting bout being at the lane corresponding to your bib (Bib #10 shoots at lane #10 regardless of position in race.) with rest of the shoot .....
Relay
5. The relay teams consist of four biathletes, who each ski 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) (men) or 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) (women), each leg skied over three laps, with two shooting rounds; one prone, one standing. For every round of five targets there are eight bullets available, though the last three can only be single loaded manually one at a time from spare round holders or bullets deposited by the competitor into trays or onto the mat at the firing lin .....
Mixed relay
6. The most recent addition to the number of biathlon competition variants, the mixed relay, is similar to the ordinary relay but for the composition of the teams, each of which consists of two women and two men. Legs 1 and 2 are done by the women, legs 3 and 4 by the men. The womens legs are 6 km and mens legs are 7.5 km as in ordinary relay competitions. .....
Biathlon Competition
7. The skier carrying their .22 rifle in a harness skis off along a cross country trail (on cross country skis). The objective is to ski fast. They ski into a rifle range and shoot five targets in defined shooting positions which are either standing or prone (lying down). See in the image, the biathletes are in the prone position on special mats placed on the snow at the rifle range. .....
shooting
8. The competitor has to be extremely fit so that despite the fast skiing, their heart rate is calm and as low as possible, to allow for accurate target shooting. When the bullet hits the target, a metal panel closes over, indicating a successful hit. The aim is to hit all five targets. If any target is not hit, the skier may have to ski penalty loops and this adds to the time scored. The more misses, the more penalty loops to be skied. .....
Distance is completed
9. The competitor then leaves the range, skis off on the next loop, comes back into the range and the process repeats itself until the full race distance is completed. For example, to compete a 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) course, the race may be 4 by 2.5 kilometers (2.5 mi ? 1.6 mi) loops and each time the competitor comes into the same range he has to shoot the five targets. .....
The winner
10. The winner is the biathlete with the shortest overall time including time on penalty loops. Naturally, the competitor will want to shoot accurately, so as not to waste time skiing additional penalty loops. .....
Special Requirements for Biathlon
11. Learn that before even contemplating this sport, shooting lessons are recommended, a gun license is mandatory and learn how to safely handle a firearm. It sounds obvious, but the class of gun license you want would be one that allow you to use a rifle for competition purpose. .....
In some countries
12. In some countries, to secure a shooters license may require an examination. Minors may have restricted licenses or may not be permitted to carry arms outside a licensed shooting range. In these cases Biathlon competitions will need to be modified to accommodate the firearms legislation of the local jurisdiction. .....
How to Train for Biathlon
13. You have to be very fit. Train in endurance sports like long distance running. Get used to carrying the gun when you go for a run first, then move on to skiing. If your country does not permit the carrying of firearms outside a designated range, practice by running with a backpack carrying a weight of about 5 kilos. .....
Train in shooting on prone position and standing at a rifle range
14. Train to be accurate. Train to hold the firearm always in the same position. Work on accurate target shooting then get the process faster and quicker. Its all about speed and consistency. Train to always lie prone in exactly the same position, likewise the standing position must be perfected to the optimum position for accurate shooting .....
In winter
15. In winter, enrol in cross country skiing lessons. Join in cross country ski races as part of your training program to ski fast. This is an all terrain, all weather sport learn to ski up the hills and how to handle icy tracks. Make sure you conserve energy on the downhill sections by keeping your arms freely sway back behind you, so you have more energy to push for the uphill sections and the final sprint finish. .....
Championships
16. The following articles list mr international biathlon events and medalists. Contrary to the Olympics and World Championships (BWCH), the World Cup (BWC) is an entire winter season of (mostly) weekly races, where the medalists are those with the highest sums of World Cup points at the end of the season. .....
Basic concepts
17. A biathlon competition consists of a race in which contestants ski around a cross country trail system, and where the total distance is broken up by either two or four shooting rounds, half in prone position, the other half standing. Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestants total running distance time. As in most races, the contestant with the shortest total time wins.Depending on the shooting perf .....
Skiing details
18. All cross country skiing techniques are permitted in biathlon, which means that the free technique is usually the preferred one, being the fastest. No equipment other than skis and ski poles may be used to move along the track. Minimum ski length is the height of the skier less 4 centimetres (1.6 in). The rifle has to be carried by the skier during the race at all times. .....
Shooting details
19. The biathlete carries a small bore rifle, which weighs at least 3.5 kilograms (7.7 lb), excluding ammunition and magazines. The rifles use .22 LR ammunition and are bolt action or Fortner (straight pull bolt) action.The target range shooting distance is 50 metres (160 ft). There are five circular targets to be hit in each shooting round. When shooting in the prone position the target diameter is 45 millimetres (1.8 in); when shooting in the stand .....
Biathlon variants
20. Two common variations on traditional winter biathlon are summer biathlon, where skiing is replaced by a cross country run, and archery biathlon (ski archery), where the rifle is replaced by a recurve bow.There have also been summer competitions in roller ski biathlon, mountain bike biathlon, orienteering biathlon, and run archery. Primitive Biathlon uses snowshoes and muzzleloaders.The Boy Scouts of America offers a Bikeathlon variant at their na .....
Skis and wax
21. Freestyle technique skis are shorter, nominally stiffer and have tips that curve less than classic technique skis. Glide wax is applied to the entire under surface. .....
Target
22. The size of the target varies according to the position (standing or prone) of the contestant. If a contestant hits a target that is coloured black, a white disc slides across it, indicating a successful shot. .....
Boots
23. These are more rigid and have more ankle support than classic technique boots because they are subject to considerable lateral pressure. .....
Clip
24. Also called a magazine. Used to hold five .22 calibre rifle cartridges. Up to four clips can be stored in the rifle stock while the athlete skis the course. At the range, the clips are taken from the stock and inserted into the rifle as needed. .....
Rear sight
25. A clear cylinder that magnifies the target (to align the target correctly, the fore sight should be perfectly centred in the rear sight; generally, one eye is shut to eliminate distractions). .....
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