rules to play down hill skiing
. The downhill and Super G take place as one run. The skier with the fastest time is the Olympic champion. The margin of victory, counted to the hundredth of a second, is usually very small. Ties are possible.Because of the high speeds involved in the downhill and Super G, crashes and falls often prevent a skier from completing the course. However, a skier may finish a race and get an official result as long as he or she retains at least one firmly
. In downhill, a skier must master speeds of up to 90 mph on various combinations of ice and snow while managing turns, steeps and flats. Although crashes are uncommon (only two skiers did not finish the downhill course in 2006), they can be spectacular.Downhill is the only discipline where skiers are allowed training runs. Three training runs are scheduled on the Olympic slope prior to race day; each skier must start at least one of those runs.The
. The Super G made its Olympic debut at the 1988 Calgary Games. Short for super giant slalom, it combines the speed of downhill (usually 60 65 mph) and the precise turning (30 35 changes of direction) of giant slalom.Unlike the downhill, no training runs are permitted in the Super G; only a one hour visual inspection on the morning of the race is allowed. Skiers must memorize the course quickly, trust their instincts to find the fastest line and st
. The slalom and giant slalom are held as one day, two run events. Usually, the first run is held in the morning, the second run in the afternoon. In each event, a one hour visual inspection of each course is allowed prior to each competition run. Skiers must memorize the course quickly, trust their instincts to find the fastest line and stay true to their technique to produce an error free run.The first run start order for the both events is deter
. The slalom event tests a skiers ability to maneuver quickly and efficiently down a ski slope scattered with alternating blue and red gates. The number of gates on a course is normally between 60 65 for men, 50 55 for women.Because of the high technical demands of the course, the ratio of skiers who do not complete the course (DNF) to skiers is quite high. Occasionally, a skier who has missed a gate will ski up the hill to successfully pass it bef
. The giant slalom premiered at the 1952 Oslo Games, and of late, has produced the most diverse field of any of the Alpine events.The giant slalom features wider, but fewer turns. The number of gates (normally, mid 50s for men, mid 40s for women) is determined by the vertical drop of the course. As in slalom, the gates are set alternately blue and red. The frequency of DNFs is lower in giant slalom than in slalom, but the same rules for disqualific
. The combined event tests a skiers ability to handle both the speed and technical aspects of Alpine skiing.For the first time since the Alpine combined was re introduced to the Olympic program in 1988, the event will consist of one downhill run followed by one slalom run in a format called the super combined. (From 1988 2006, the classical combined consisted of one downhill and two slalom runs.) The order of disciplines may be altered in the event
. Reinforced plastic boots are specific to the competition discipline. Raising of the boot sole is permitted to increase the ability to pressurise the ski. The maximum distance between boot sole and foot is regulated, presently at 50mm for men and 45mm for women.
. Made of leather or synthetic material. Slalom gloves also have a plastic forearm guard for protection when skiing through the gates.
. Ski goggles protect the eyes against weather, glare and the effects of speed on the eyes. Goggles can be worn with a variety of lens colours to maximise contrast and visibility.
. A helmet is compulsory for downhill and super G and is often worn in slalom and giant slalom. Some skiers choose to attach a chin guard.
. In the downhill and super G, poles are curved to fit around the body to reduce air resistance. In the slalom events, poles are straight and often have plastic guards covering the knuckles to help skiers knock the slalom poles out of their path.
. Skis are generally made of various material (wood, composite fibres) specially adapted to the wear and tear they undergo during a race. Their performance on the snow depends also on their length, width and shape which vary, depending on the course, and the speed. Metal edges on the skis are sharpened for every race to make the ski hold during the turn on the icy surface.
. Skin tight racing suits are worn to reduce air resistance and suits must meet minimum requirements for air permeability. Padding may be worn under the ski suit a plastic back protector is usually worn in downhill. In slalom events, pads are frequently worn on the arms, knees and shins.
. Bindings are the link between the boots and the skis. Safety bindings will release when the torsion or impact is strong enough. The maximum height (distance between the bottom of the running surface of the ski and the ski boot sole) is regulated at 55mm.
. All participants must have turned 15 before the end of the 2010 calendar year to be eligible.
. In all forms of Downhill, both at a local youth level as well as the higher FIS international level, racers are allowed extensive preparation for the race, which includes daily course inspection and discussion with their coaches and teammates as well as several practice runs before the actual race. Racers do not make any unnecessary turns while on the course, and try to do everything they can to maintain the most aerodynamic position while negoti
. In and some courses, such as the Lauberhorn course in Wengen, Switzerland, and the Hahnenkamm course in Kitzb
. Skiing can be traced to prehistoric times by the discovery of varying sizes and shapes of wooden planks preserved in peat bogs in Russia, Finland, Sweden and Norway. Ski fragments discovered in Russia have been carbon dated back to circa 8000 7000 BC. It is virtually certain that a form of skiing has been an integral part of life in colder countries for thousands of years.
. Skiing changed its from a method of transportation into a sporting activity during the late 19th century. The first non military skiing competitions are reported to have been held in the 1840s in northern and central Norway. The first national skiing competition in Norway, held in the capital Christiania (now Oslo) and won by Sondre Norheim, in 1868, is regarded as the beginning of a new era of skiing enthusiasm. A few decades later, the sport sp
. Mens and womens alpine skiing both debuted on the Olympic programme in 1936 at Garmisch Partenkirchen. The only event that year was a combined competition of both downhill and slalom. In 1948, this was held along with separate downhill and slalom races. Four years later the giant slalom was added and in 1988 the super giant slalom became a fourth separate event.
. A typical course begins at or near the top of the mountain on a piste that is closed off to the public and groomed for the race. Gates are farther apart.The courses in the world's most notable ski areas are well established and do not change significantly year to year.The course is designed to challenge the best skiers in a variety of ways skiing at high speeds, through challenging turns, shallow dips, flats, and small airs (jumps). A good course
. The only competition change for the 2010 Vancouver Games involves the super combined. The super combined incorporates one run each of downhill and slalom, with medals being awarded to the three fastest racers based on their combined times in the two runs. The predecessor to the super combined the combined incorporated one downhill run and two slalom runs.
. In June 2009, the International Ski Federation (FIS) released the quotas which determine the maximum number of Alpine skiers a nation may bring to the 2010 Olympics. The FIS quota is based on performance and depth of field during the 2008 09 season.Austria, Switzerland, France and Italy earned the most spots (22), followed by the United States with 20.Over 300 Alpine skiers are expected to compete in Vancouver.
. This sport class is allocated to athletes with an impairment that strongly affects both legs, for example an above knee amputation of both legs or significant muscle weakness in both legs.