munshi premchand

Biography
1. Born July 31, 1880 Died October 8, 1936.Achievements Premchand brought realism to Hindi literature. Premchand wrote on the realistic issues of the day communalism, corruption, zamindari, debt, poverty, colonialism etc. He avoided the use of highly Sanskritized Hindi and instead used the dialect of the common people.Premchand popularly known as Munshi Premchand was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi literature. His stories vividl .....
Munshi Premchand
2. Premchand was born on 31 July 1880 in a village near Varanasi in India to Munshi Ajaib Lal, a clerk in the post office. His parents died when he was still very young. His mother died when he was no more than seven and his father passed away when Premchand was fifteen or sixteen, and still a student. After loosing his parents, Premchand became responsible for his step mother and his siblings born from her. Premchand was married to a girl in an arr .....
Early Career
3. It was in Allahabad, where he first started writing seriously. Premchand started his literary career as a freelancer in Urdu and wrote several short stories in the language. His first novella, Asrar e Maoabid was first published in Awaz e Khalq, an Urdu Weekly. Soon after, he became associated with an Urdu magazine Zamana, where he wrote columns on national and international events. He also wrote a collection of short stories in Urdu which became .....
Success as a Writer
4. His literary work in Urdu gained him a reputation of a journalist with social aim, rather than a mere entertainer. Premchand was born in the British India and the Indian Independence movement was at its peak when he started his writing career. His early writings were largely influenced by the nationwide movement in which he often expressed his support to the fight for freedom. In 1910, his collection of Soz e Watan was labeled as rebellious on ac .....
Writing Style Notable Work
5. Aside from a novelist and author, Premchand was also a social reformer and a thinker. The remarkable characteristic of his writing was the reality with which he depicted his characters in the novels. Unlike other contemporary writers, he did not write fantasy fictions, or stories based upon a hero. His novels mainly consisted messages on social evils like, dowry, poverty, communalism, colonialism and corruption and Zamindari. He was the first wri .....
Writing style
6. The main characteristic of Premchands writings is his interesting story telling and use of simple language. His novels describe the problems of the rural peasant classes. He avoided the use of highly Sanskritized Hindi (as was the common practice among Hindi writers), and also Spanish language. .....
Literary works
7. Premchand has written about 300 short stories, several novels as well as many essays and letters. He has also written some plays. He also did some translations. Many of Premchands stories have been translated into English and Russian.Godaan (The Gift of a Cow), his last novel, is considered the finest Hindi novel of all times.The hero, Hori, a poor peasant, desperately longs for a cow, a symbol of wealth and prestige in rural India. Hori gets a c .....
Films based on Premchands work
8. Satyajit Ray filmed two of Premchands works Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Sadgati (Salvation) is a short story about poor Dukhi, who gets exhausted to death while he hews wood for more or less nothing. Shatranj ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) tells the story of chess players who are so concentrated on a game that they forget their responsibilities in the midst of a crisis. .....
Adoption of the name Premchand
9. In 1909, Premchand was transferred to Mahoba, and later posted to Hamirpur as the Sub deputy Inspector of Schools.Around this time, Soz e Watan was noticed by the British Government officials, who banned it as a seditious work. The British collector of the Hamirpur District ordered a raid on Premchands house, where around five hundred copies of Soz e Watan were burnt.Subsequently, Dhanpat Rai had to change his pseudonym from Nawab Rai to Premchan .....
Gorakhpur
10. In August 1916, Premchand was transferred to Gorakhpur on a promotion. He became the Assistant Master at the Normal High School, Gorakhpur.At Gorakhpur, he developed a friendship with the bookseller Buddhi Lal, who allowed him to borrow novels for reading, in exchange for selling exam cram books at the school. Premchand was an enthusiastic reader of classics in other languages, and translated several of these works in Hindi. By 1919, Premchand ha .....
Back to Benares
11. After quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March 1921, and decided to focus on his literary career. Till his death in 1936, he faced severe financial difficulties and chronic ill health.In 1923, he established a printing press and publishing house in Benares, christened Saraswati Press. The year 1924 saw the publication of Premchands Rangabhumi, which has a blind beggar called Surdas as its tragic hero. Schulz mentions tha .....
Mumbai
12. Premchand arrived in Mumbai on 31 May 1934 to try his luck in the Hindi film industry. He had accepted a script writing job for the production house Ajanta Cinetone, hoping that the yearly salary of INR 8000 would help him overcome his financial troubles. He stayed in Dadar, and wrote the script for the film Mazdoor (The Labourer). The film, directed by Mohan Bhawnani, depicted the poor conditions on the labour class. Premchand himself did a came .....
Style and influences
13. Premchand is considered the first Hindi author whose writings prominently featured realism.His novels describe the problems of the poor and the urban middle class. His works depict a rationalistic outlook, which views religious values as something that allows the powerful hypocrites to exploit the weak. He used literature for the purpose of arousing public awareness about national and social issues and often wrote about topics related to corrupti .....
Adaptations of Premchands works
14. Satyajit Ray filmed two of Premchands works Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Sadgati (Salvation) is a short story revolving around poor Dukhi, who dies of exhaustion while hewing wood for a paltry favour. Shatranj ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) revolved around the decadence of nawabi Lucknow, where the obsession with a game consumes the players, making them oblivious of their responsibilities in the midst of a crisis.Sevasadan (first published i .....
Last days
15. After leaving Bombay, Premchand wanted to settle in Allahabad, where his sons Sripat Rai and Amrit Rai were studying. He also planned to publish Hans from there. However, owing to his financial situation and ill health, he had to hand over Hans to the Indian Literary Counsel and move to Benares.Premchand was elected as the first President of the Progressive Writers Association in Lucknow, in 1936. He died on 8 October 1936, after several days of .....
Later Life Death
16. Premchand believed that literature is a powerful medium to educate people and it showed in his writings. In his later life, he continued to write fictions with social purpose and social criticism. Now a revered author and thinker, he presided over conferences, literature seminars and received huge applause. He chaired the first All India conference of the Indian Progressive Writeros Association in year 1936. However, in his personal life he was s .....
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