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Importants Dates Of Indian History
All facts of Indian History which included ancient india,medieval india and modern India.
11. Shift from Silver Standard to Gold Standard
Many historians state that India lost its glory and richness due to invasions, foreign culture diluting the traditions, British rule, territorial disputes among the princely states, etc. While all these were ingredients for Indians decline, the catalyst for Indias poverty and was the shift from Silver standard to Gold standard. In India, the currency was Rupee. Silver coins were noted to be used in different forms since Magadha kingdom and it was formalized during Sher Shah Suris regime of Economic development throughout India. Rupee was official currency of whole of south and south east Asia and was also adopted in Middle East (Duabi and Qatar till 1959). When it was said that India had glorious past and was a rich country, it didnt mean just rich kings or rulers, India as a whole was rich. Pre 1868 1898 (1898 being the date when India adopted Gold standard), silver and gold were of equal value, i.e., one silver coin you can get the same amount of gold. But this ratio sharply declined starting from 1872 till 1898, nearly loosing 1 3rd of its value, i.e., 1 rupee was now 30 paise along with this gold value increased tremendously. Another factor was India doesnt have gold mines to generate their gold and push its value.
In early 19th century, the valuation system updates were not that fast as in todays internet era, where people could have dumped silver much faster to reduce the loses. The strategy of devaluation of silver and making Gold as standard was devised by Issac Newton. The British had awareness of what impact this change in currency standard will have on Indian economy, but they still did it to gain control over India. Oscar Wilde in his play The Importance of being Earnest has a dialogue by Miss Prism to Cecily, Cecily, you will read your Political Economy in my absence. The chapter on the Fall of the Rupee you may omit. It is somewhat too sensational. Even these metallic problems have their melodramatic side.
In the paper by Prof.Matthias Morys, University of York and Paper on gold standard and Ottoman Empire by Dr. Cosun Tuncer , it is evidently pointed out that the Core and Peripheral system in the Classic gold standard era (1870 1914), where the Core (consisting of British, ?France, ?Germany and few other European countries) exploited the exchange rates, interest rates, discount rates, cover ratio and access to foreign reserves for their advantage against Peripheral countries (that included India). For example; England, ?Germany, ?France and ?Netherlands are the only countries whose exchange rate never deprecated more than 1% (i.e. they got more gold for same amount of money every time).
12. Nomination of Sardar Vallabhai Patel for Prime Minister
It has been said by historians that Sardar Patel was the original choice of the selection committee as the First PM of India. The selection committee contained representatives of Congress Party from 16 states. In the 1946 election for the Congress presidency, Patel stepped down in favour of Nehru at the request of Gandhi. The elections importance stemmed from the fact that the elected President would lead free Indias first Government. Gandhi asked all 16 states representatives and Congress to elect the right person and Sardar Patels name was proposed by 13 states representatives out of 16, but Patel respected Gandhis request to not be the first prime minister. There are many unverifiable reasons given for Patels change of stance. One among them is that Nehru threatened to break the Congress Party if Patel did not step down and Gandhi saw this as a threat for Indian Independence. Another version of the events dictates that Gandhi regarded Patel as a capitalist and imperialistic leader and Gandhi envisioned India as a socialist nation and thus regarding Nehru to be a better leader than Patel.
13. Rediscovery of River Saraswati
The last three Vedas (Yajur, Sama & Atharva) gave much importance to Ganga; however, the oldest Veda (Rigveda) revered Indus and Saraswati as the holiest of Indian rivers. In 1995, scientists of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) found that water was available in the Rajasthan desert at depths of merely 50 to 60 meters. The Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jodhpur, mapped the defunct course of a river through satellite and aerial photographs and field studies. In fact, satellite imagery has given the river scientific teeth. It seems to have originated in Kailash Mansarovar and emerged on the plains from the Siwalik Hills at the foothills of the Himalayas in Himachal Pradesh, flowed through the Ghaggar valley in Haryana and the Rajasthans Thar desert, on to Hakra in the Cholistan desert (Sindh, Pakistan), before reaching the Rann of Kutch through the Nara Valley and falling off into the Arabian Sea. Evidences prove that Saraswati dried up or was at least drying up around 3000BC round about the same time the civilization in cities like Mahendragarh, Kalibangan, Dholavira collapsed. The Vedas mention Saraswati in its glorious and wildly magnificent form flowing down from the mountains and enriching the plains. This means the river must have flowed in all its ancient greatness as glorified by the hymns of the Rig Vedic poets at least around 5000BC. As per the latest available research done through Radio Metric Dating, the Indus Saraswati Civilization is now thought to be from 7380 BC. This is on the basis of preliminary findings, released on the 5th November 2012.
14. Liberalization of 1991
Liberalization of 1991 was one of the important events in Indian history. Right from 1985 Indian economy was in crisis. In 1991, government was close to default, RBI had refused any new credit, and government had only 1 billion US dollars in foreign exchange (only enough to sustain three weeks worth of import). India had to pledge 20 tons of gold from reserves to Union Bank of Switzerland. Further 47 tons were transferred to Bank of England as collateral for IMF bailout. Indian currency was devalued and economic reforms were forced upon India. This was all attributed to the Nehrus practise of heavy industrialization in a socialist economy, introducing license raj for the purpose of
15. Addition of Sikkim
With the option of acceding to India, Pakistan or total freedom in 1947, a couple of princely states and foreign colonies within India decided to accede to neither of them. The Nizam of Hyderabad (who was among the richest people in the world) declared his intention to remain independent. But Sardar Patel had different thoughts and decided to annex the state of Hyderabad in 1948. About 35000 Indian soldiers fought 22,000 soldiers of the Hyderabad Nizam and 200,000 irregulars. The war ended in just 5 days with 32 casualties on the Indian side and 3500 on the enemy side (with 4000 prisoners). Although the numbers were equally matched, the causalities for India vs the loss for Hyderabad was 1:100.
In case of Goa, the Portuguese ruled Goa for 461 years until 1961. They refused to hand over Goa to India even after the Indian independence. The locals were resisting the Portuguese, but even after many diplomatic efforts, ?Portugal did not alter their stand. In 1961, India with a massive force outmatched the Portuguese force 10:1 and annexed Goa in just 36 hours.Sikkim continued to be outside India till 1975 as a suzerainty, as its external affairs were administered by India while internal by themselves. Due to political instability, PM of Sikkim pleaded for statehood. Therefore in April of 1975, Indian Army took over the city of Gangtok and disarmed the monarchs palace guards and thus it later became the 22nd state of Indian Union.
Lakshadweep belonged to Madras Presidency and therefore belonged to India in accordance with Indian Independence Act 1947. But because the islands had a Muslim majority, it seemed possible that Pakistan might lay claim on the islands. Under the directives of Home Minister, Vallabhbhai Patel, a ship of the Royal Indian Navy reached Lakshadweep and hoisted Indian flag. Hours after the arrival of Indian Navy ship, a few ships of Pakistan Navy were observed on the coastal waters of Lakshadweep, but sensing the Indian presence, they retreated back to Karachi.
16. Indian States Reorganization
While British left India after partition in 1947, British dissolved their treaty relations with more than 500 princely states. They were encouraged to accede to either India or Pakistan, while under no compulsion to do so. Most of these princely states acceded to India, a few of them acceded to Pakistan and Bhutan and Hyderabad (that India later conquered with military intervention) opted for independence. Most of these states were merged into existing provinces while others were organized into new provinces. Bombay presidency split eventually into Maharashtra, Gujarat in 1960, Punjab split into Haryana into 1966.Tensions were witnessed in the case of Madras state with the demand of separate Andhra state. Andhra was indeed carved out and enlarged with the inclusion of Telangana part of Hyderabad, which disintegrated into states of Mysore (which later became Karnataka) & Bombay under States Reorganisation Act of 1956. States such as Kerala also came into existence by this act. Madras state was later renamed to Tamil Nadu. Following partition of Punjab, in the quest of a new capital (Lahore was the capital before) Nehru undertook the construction of a new planned city, which was named Chandigarh. Telangana later protested against its merger into Andhra in 1967 unsuccessfully.
Assam would be further disintegrated. After an uprising by Naga tribes consisting of civil disobedience and violence, Nagaland was formed in 1962 while Meghalya ceded peacefully in 1972, Arunachal in 1975. Mizo uprising began in 1966 thwarting, which remains the only instance when Government of India used airstrikes on its own civilians. Mizo National Front kept pushing for statehood and achieved Mizoram via diplomatic negotiations in 1987. Manipur & Tripura were Union Territories in 1956, but given state status in 1972. Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttaranchal ertr the final states to be created that were carved out of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh respectively in 2000.
17. October 27 1947
Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir and Governor General Lord Louis Mountbatten signed the papers for the accession of Kashmir. Since then, Kashmir has been a disputed state and had led to as many as 4 wars between India and Pakistan.
18. November 26 1949
BR Ambedkar, Chairman of the Drafting committee of 308 members that was preparing the constitution of India, presented a fully drafted Constitution and it was passed on November 26, 1949. That constitution has since ranked as the best constitution in the world.
19. 01 01 1952
Indias first General Election was held at this time. The election was left open for more than 175 million Indians across the country, with a large percentage of them being uneducated.
20. State Reorganization Act 1956
This act entailed the reorganization of states based on language. Potti Sriramulus fast facilitated a new plan for uniting India based on Linguistic lines, rather than ethnicity or religion. In 1964, Indias map was redrawn by coalescing people with same language into separate sovereign states.
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